Archive for moroccan

Have your own Moroccan henna experience or give it as a gift

Posted in art, classes, culture, design, henna, history, morocco, traditions with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , on December 26, 2012 by kenzilisa

6282009095_2793513168_zNow that I don’t believe in Santa anymore and can buy stuff for myself my attitude about gifts has shifted. I love handmade gifts or things bought while travelling, but I especially like experiences. There are so many great sites now offering classes and tours, among other things, that are great for gifts. I’ve been shopping around these sites for myself and for other people. Then recently I was contacted by this really cool start-up called SideTour that organizes really cool experiences; they wanted me to do something related to Moroccan henna and I’m excited to tell you about it. You can see more information here: and also sign up for a spot. There are only 8 spots left so don’t miss out on this. If you have always wanted to have henna done this is a great way to do it: you’ll learn about henna, meet other people who share your passion for it and get henna done on you by an expert…me!

By the way, I liked this site so much that I got someone on my list a gift certificate and he said it was the best gift he got all year!

New York City Moor Workshop – October 16th

Posted in amazigh, art, classes, culture, design, henna, history, morocco, traditions, women, workshop with tags , , , , , , , , , on September 5, 2011 by kenzilisa

At last and thanks to great demand, Nic and I will be doing another Moor Moroccan Henna Master class in NYC.  The class will be on Sunday, October 16th from Noon to 5 pm in Brooklyn, NY.


More info and registration here:

Moor Moroccan Master Henna Workshop in NYC, October 16, 2010

Posted in algeria, amazigh, art, classes, critique, culture, design, henna, history, moor, the book, morocco, people, sahara, tattoos, traditions, women, workshop with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on September 3, 2010 by kenzilisa

Nic and I (aka Kenzi) are teaching a Moroccan henna master class in NYC for the all the Northeast henna artists.

Saturday, October 16, 2010
Noon – 5 pm
Alwan for the Arts, New York City

We’ll be covering Moroccan henna traditions and designs in an in-depth 5-hour master class with live demos and hands-on coaching. This is a rare opportunity to not only learn from two of the premiere experts in Moroccan henna but also a chance to hang with us after (afterparty location to be announced).

The lecture/demo part of the workshop will be about 3-3.5 hours long. Everyone will get handouts of the information presented and we plan to dazzle you with a slideshow of awesome henna photos. There will be a Q&A period afterwards and a lot of hangout time to henna each other and practice what you have learned. Nic and I will be there, walking around and helping out as you practice. We will have henna and applicators, but you can bring your own henna and applicator to play with.

Cost for the workshop will be $60 for early registration (before October 1, 2010), $75 thereafter.  You pay for your spot online here.

See you in NYC!!

Finding Moroccan

Posted in amazigh, art, classes, design, henna, jewelry, morocco, tattoos, traditions with tags , , on June 12, 2010 by nictharpa

One of the main focuses of my own henna work is re-creating older traditional style designs. But what is that process like? Take a spin with me through my interpretation of a design…

Moroccan postcard

The postcard in question

The multitalented Noam Sienna emailed me recently with a link to a French Moroccan postcard he had found which shows some really nice old style henna. We’re not sure what the year on this is, but it’s definitely pre-syringe work, which puts it in the 1970’s or earlier, probably no earlier than the 1950’s. This work was done the old way with a stick, dipped into the henna paste and then used to drape the lines of these great bold designs. It also shows some interesting design features, mainly the symmetry of the design on the hand on the left- those types of designs are not seen any more in Morocco.

What I really love is the design on the palm though- the composition there really speaks to me. So, I set out to create my own interpretation of that design on my own hand. The result:

Re-created design

My interpretation

You can see that it has changed quite a bit from the original, but I think it still retains the same style and overall effect. Here’s how I go about doing this type of thing…:

First, I take a good long look at the original and establish two things. One, what are some of the elements of the use of space and layout that make the design do what it does on the hand? And two, as far as motifs, what type of style is the original design and what can I do to emulate that style? There are also other little details, like what kind of hand did the artist have? Are the lines very smooth and strong, or are they thinner and wispy? Are the shapes very even, or more irregular? Is there any line variation in the design? There are probably hundreds of little assessments you can make of a design like this that will help you to re-create something that carries its essence.

So for me, when looking at the original, the two most important parts of the design are that band of triangles across the palm and the double line which starts at the base of the thumb and presumably runs around the outline of the heel of the hand. Those are the two elements that I decided must be present in my re-creation.

Stylistically, the lines are wide and far apart but drawn very confidently, without any shakiness or hesitation. I chose to use a very heavy line in my interpretation to get this feeling across.

As far as the design itself, you can see that it’s a lot different from the original- I took some liberties. For one, the fingers are patterned and not solid. Though I adore that solid look, henna artists will know that this kind of thing doesn’t wear very well, and in a couple of weeks I’d have very splotchy fingers. So I went with patterns instead, which were partially drawn from the other hand on the postcard.

The rest of the fill is slightly more intricate as well, because I didn’t use quite as thick a line as in the original. When I needed inspiration for what types of fillers to use, I tried to look just at these two hands and use the shapes that this artist had used originally. I’ve recombined them, but within the same basic structure as the original design, laid out mainly by the band across the palm and the double line border.

The row of peaks around the outside was improvised by me because it’s impossible to see where the design actually ends- this was one of a few different ways I could envision this design being tied off based on where it falls out of view in the original photo.

This is the process I typically go through when doing a re-creation like this one. Summed up: 1) Visual assessment for style and important elements. 2) Creation of the main building blocks of the design, and fill in areas that are easy to interpret. 3) Improvisation of any areas that can’t be seen in the original, using the observations I’ve made to guide stylistic choices. Try it the next time you want to take on something like this!

Another view, with a yellow talhakimt pendant

Another view, with a yellow talhakimt pendant

Maryam in the Marrakeshi Mud

Posted in art, culture, design, henna, morocco, women with tags , , , on May 19, 2010 by kenzilisa

An almost-completed henna design being applied with a sryinge, the most common henna tool in Moroccco

I stumbled across this wonderful blog by a woman named Maryam, a writer who is also starting up a boutique hotel in Marrakesh, which just happens to be my favorite city in Morocco.  Her blog is a really interesting view into the life of an expat in Morocco with lots of gorgeous pictures that glorify the aesthetic style of Morocco.  She even has a couple of nice stories about her henna experiences:

Henna Home Delivery

Guest House Henna Party

You can read more about her here in her bio.

Through Colonial Eyes: North African Jewish henna in the 18th – 20th centuries

Posted in amazigh, art, culture, henna, history, jewish, morocco, people, traditions, weddings with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on May 18, 2010 by kenzilisa

Guest Blogger: Noam Sienna, henna artist and scholar
Jerusalem, Israel and Boston, MA

North Africa, until recently, was home to many ancient and significant Jewish communities, stretching from the very edge of Western Morocco all the way across to Egypt. It is unclear when the first Jews arrived in North Africa, but it appears that already in the Roman period groups of Jewish merchants were settling in the Roman province of Mauretania—present-day Morocco— as well as the other Roman provinces of North Africa. These Jews, as they migrated southwards, settled among the Amazigh [Berber] tribes, working as silversmiths and jewelers. They developed their own dialect of Amazigh, called Judeo-Berber, and lived in the Atlas Mountains among the Amazigh tribes there. The Arab conquest in the 7th century brought more Jews, who settled in middle and western Morocco, speaking Judeo-Arabic. These Arab and Berber Jews were joined by Ladino-speaking Iberian Jews [Sephardim] who arrived after the expulsions from Spain in 1492, Sicily in 1493, and Portugal in 1497 and settled in the urban centers of northern Morocco. These communities spread and flourished in Morocco until the beginning of the 20th century, when emigration began towards the Land of Israel—then Ottoman Palestine. With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the vast majority of Jewish communities in the Diaspora, including the Jews of North Africa, were expelled, fled, or otherwise migrated to Israel in the following decades.

A Jewish Amazigh girl from Tinmal/Tin Mel in the High Atlas area.

North Africa (known then as “the Barbary States”) was a popular destination for travelers in the 18th and 19th centuries; there had been significant European presence in North Africa from the 18th century onwards, leading to the French military conquests of Algeria in 1830 and Tunisia in 1881, and the signing of Morocco as a French Protectorate in 1912. Colonial European travellers—both Jews and non-Jews—often mention henna use by Jewish communities in their writings, which provide us with our main knowledge of Jewish henna practices in this period. The mentions are generally short, without information about the techniques or patterns used, or the symbolism represented by the henna ceremony. This lack of detail has several causes.  Firstly, these travellers were outsiders who generally did not speak the local language, and were often there only for a short time; their information came from their informants rather than what they observed directly. They were rarely ever present at actual henna ceremonies; they usually saw only the hennaed hands and feet. Secondly, these travellers were for the most part European men (although some were women), who were uninterested in, and sometimes even strongly repulsed by, foreign women’s standards of beauty, the practice of henna, in particular. Furthermore, as men, they were not privy to the world of the women in these traditionally conservative societies, and not particularly interested in it, either. In the rare cases when they did have opportunities to observe henna use and were interested enough to record it, they were hindered by their unfamiliarity with henna or the way it worked. For these reasons, these early descriptions that we have of Jewish henna use contain many gross misunderstandings and misinterpretations, along with a severe lack of relevant detail. Nonetheless, they represent a significant source in tracing the history and geography of Jewish henna traditions.

One such traveller’s account comes from the English physician William Lemprière, who visited Morocco between 1789 and 1790. He described the appearance and dress of the Jewish women, presumably from his own observation; he then briefly described their wedding ceremonies, but it is unclear whether he actually saw any, or whether he is merely reporting what he had heard about them; he also does not specify if he is speaking of a particular Jewish community or of a particular area. He writes:

Their [the Jews’] marriages are celebrated with much festivity for some time previous to the ceremony, and the intended bride, with all her female relations, go through the form of having their faces painted red and white, and their hands and feet stained yellow, with an herb named HENNA. A variety of figures are marked out on them with a needle, and then this herb, which is powdered and mixed with water into a paste, is worked into the holes made by the needle, and these marks continue on the hands and feet for a long space of time (Lemprière, 1793, pp. 204-205).

. The other side of the bag is labeled in Arabic.”]It is highly unlikely that the henna was rubbed into broken skin, as this would lead to a permanent tattoo, and Lemprière notes that the stain is long-lasting but not permanent. Furthermore, we have no record of henna being used for tattooing; in cultures that practiced both tattooing and henna (as in North Africa), the two art forms were separate traditions and were not linked in cultural practice. Rather, it is probable that Lemprière had been told that the henna was done with a needle, and he interpreted that to mean that it was tattooed. However, it was common in Morocco to use a needle, a khol stick, or a small twig as a tool to draw patterns on the skin; this technique continues to be used until the present day. Elsewhere, Lemprière describes the Moorish women of the sultan’s harem as having their hands and feet hennaed with patterns as well, clearly from his personal observations. The dark red, almost-black color on the palms would result from multiple, repeated applications of henna:

The inside of the hands, and the nails, are stained of a deep red, so deep indeed that in most lights it borders on black; and the back of the hands have several fancy marks of the same color. The feet are painted in a similar manner with the hands (ibid., pp. 397-398).

A French diplomat, Narcisse Cotte, also noted the use of henna at Jewish weddings. He describes the process of beautification and preparation for the wedding in the mellah [Jewish quarter] of Tangier:

Les cils sont noircis avec une poudre qu’elles appellent koheul, et cet artifice prète à des yeux naturellement grands et brillants un éclat singulier et des scintillements étranges. Les unes se contentent d’étaler du vermillion sur leurs joues; les autres les couvrent d’un fard blanc, et y dessinent, avec du cinabre, des triangles qui rappellent les barbares peintures en honneur parmi les sauvages du nouveau monde. Toutes ont les pieds et les mains teints d’une couleur résineuse d’un rouge sombre: elles l’obtiennent en pressant du henné, sorte de poix gluante, autour de la partie qu’elles prétendent ainsi embellir. Enfin, en passant sur leurs lèvres et leurs gencives une écorce colorante, elles obtiennent une autre teinture rougeâtre qui met le dernier sceau à tant de charmes (Cotte, 1860, pg. 148).

[The eyelashes are blackened with a powder that they call koheul, and this artifice gives their naturally large and shining eyes a unique sparkle and strange glittering. Some of the women please themselves by spreading vermillion on their cheeks; others cover them with white make-up and paint on them, with cinnabar, triangles that bring to mind the barbaric painting practiced among the savages of the New World. All of them have their feet and hands painted with a resinous color of a sombre red: they obtain it by pressing henna, a sort of sticky paste, around the parts that they desire to embellish in this way. Finally, in passing over their lips and gums a coloring bark, they obtain another reddish tint which puts the final stamp on their many charms.]

A Jewish bride from Rabat, from Jean Besancenot's Costumes de Maroc.

Similarly, a contemporary British traveller, James Richardson, described the use of henna and other cosmetics in a Jewish wedding in Mogador [present-day Essaouira, a city on the western coast of Morocco]. He did not see the henna ceremony itself, but only its after-effect.

Her [the Jewish bride’s] face was artistically painted; cheeks vermillion; lips browned, with an odoriferous composition; eye-lashes blackened with antimony; and on the forehead and tips of the chin little blue stars. The palms of the hands and nails were stained with henna, or brown-red, and her feet were naked, with the toe-nails and soles henna-stained (Richardson, 1860, pg. 189).

These descriptions of the Jewish bride’s appearance and decoration are consistent with drawings and photographs of Jewish brides from the late 19th and early 20th century, e.g. in Besancenot’s Costumes et types du Maroc (1942).

A British colonel recorded in his journal an interesting ritual use of henna by the Jewish community of Taza, in northern Morocco, to prepare for the holiday of Pesah [Passover]:

The Jews have been extremely busy the last few days, white-washing their houses, and making preparations for the celebration of the feast of the passover, which commences to-morrow… The Jewesses here not only dye their nails, but also their hands for this festival. Their manner of performing this operation is as follows: having made a paste of henna as thick as dough, they cover their hands with it to the thickness of a penny piece, they then have them bandaged up for the night; in the morning the paste being rubbed off, their hands are left a beautiful red; and so firmly does the dye take, that it remains on for eight or ten days, without any occasion for renewing the operation; at the expiration of the eight days, which time the feast lasts, they wash their hands and return to their usual occupations (Scott, 1842, pg. 81).

He seems to suggest that since the henna lasts for the duration of the festival, there was some connection between the presence of the henna and the special time of the holiday; the henna seems to have been a way of marking a particular time as ‘celebration time’.

The European Jewish historian Nahum Slouschz spent many months travelling through Morocco; he made seven trips between 1906 and 1916, including a trip in 1913 through the High Atlas recording life among the Amazigh Jews – one of the few contemporaneous records we have of Jewish life in this region. He notes that in Teluet [today in the province of Ouarzazate, south-central Morocco], the Jewish women would dye their hair, eyebrows, and fingers with henna once a week in honor of the Sabbath (Slouschz, 1927, pg. 467).

A close-up of the bride's hands from the top photo. Note the hennaed fingers.

Through travellers’ accounts, we see descriptions of Jewish henna use in communities in North Africa, the Middle East, Yemen and India. Travellers record Jewish communities using henna regularly to dye hands, feet, nails, and hair, and there are records of henna ceremonies for holidays and celebrations (e.g. Passover). However, it is the pre-wedding ceremony that dominates—the hennaed hands and feet of Jewish brides were remarked upon by numerous travellers, and were often singled out for mention, along with her kohled eyes. Unfortunately, it is only the after-effects that are most commonly seen, and the henna ceremony itself is rarely described from actual experience. While some travellers seem to indicate that henna was applied in patterns others make no mention of patterns, even in discussing the same geographical area. It would appear that there were different conventions for Jewish henna, depending on circumstance and social standing.

These travellers’ accounts, while valuable records of Jewish henna use, must be critically examined as documents written through European, modernizing, colonial lenses. As mentioned above, many factors hinder accurate representations of Jewish henna in colonial travel accounts, if represented at all. Many travelogues describing the communities mentioned above made no mention of henna practices; either the authors did not see any, or they saw them but did not know what henna was, or they did not think henna was significant enough to warrant inclusion in their narrative. The inconsistent record of henna use—being described in one account of a particular community but not in another—demonstrates that the inclusion of henna use in a travelogue was highly arbitrary. Therefore, if henna use in a particular community is not recorded it cannot be assumed that they did not use henna, especially if we have sources from a later period that indicate traditional henna use.

In these narratives, the travellers’ unfamiliarity with henna is apparent; they are unclear as to the mechanisms of creating henna body art—is it the leaves? the roots? the juice? Is henna a paint? a dye?—and they frequently confuse henna with related body adornments, such as tattoos and kohl. These travellers rarely made any attempt to understand how the ‘natives’ felt about henna or why they were doing it. Nonetheless, these sources remain important historical documents. While the pre-wedding henna ceremony is not formally required for any halakhic [Jewish legal] purpose, the cultural purpose it serves is indispensable, and this begins to be seen through the numerous descriptions of henna as one of the most prominent characteristics of Jewish marriages as seen by European travellers in the 18th – 20th centuries.


Besancenot, Jean. Costumes et types du Maroc. Paris: Horizons de France, 1942.

Cotte, Narcisse. Le Maroc Contemporain. Paris: Charpentier, 1860.

Lemprière, William. A Tour from Gibraltar to Tangier, Sallee, Mogadore, Santa Cruz, Tarudant; and Thence Over Mount Atlas, to Morocco: Including a Particular Account of the Royal Harem, &c. London: J. Walter, Charing-Cross, 1793.

Richardson, James. Travels in Morocco, by the late James Richardson, Author of “A Mission of Central Africa”, “Travels in the Desert of Sahara”, &c. Edited by his Widow. London: J. Skeet, Charing-Cross. 1860.

Scott, Colonel. A journal of a residence in the Esmailla of Abd-el-Kader and of travels in Morocco and Algiers. London: Whittaker and Co., 1842.

Slouschz, Nahum. Travels in North Africa. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1927.

The same dirt that grows henna also grows edibles

Posted in cuisine, culture, food, morocco, travel with tags , , , , , , , , , on April 29, 2010 by kenzilisa
I can’t believe I haven’t yet written about food in Morocco because it’s one of my favorite aspects of my time spent there (apart from henna, of course).  With regard to food I was luckier than most casual travelers to Morocco who only experience restaurant food when eating in Morocco.  I lived in Morocco for a year and a half and also visited every year for 13 years.  I have visited all the big cities and explored every nook and cranny of them, and I have combed the countryside, looking for local markets, interesting sights, meeting extended family members and eating…a LOT!  I have eaten in haute cuisine restaurants in elaborately decorated palaces, I have sipped tea with Polisario wives in their refugee camp tents, I have eaten tagine in desert truck stops, snacked on lung sandwiches in the old part of the capital Rabat and I have broken the Ramadan fast with tea and dates with my ex’s family.  My food experiences are vast, interesting and mostly delicious.

A typical Ramadan meal with harira and sweets.

What prompted me to write is having recently seen a few blogs about Moroccan food which I found a bit ignorant misguided.  One of these gave a recipe for the famous Moroccan dish “felafel” which isn’t even Moroccan.  Another blogger wrote about the food she ate in Morocco and it was clear from her statement—that there wasn’t much variety in Moroccan food—that she had only eaten in tourist-oriented restaurants around Morocco.  I feel it is incumbent upon me to set the record straight by giving you a taste of the variety of wonderful food in Morocco, from the haute to the low.  This is a huge topic so I will start by giving you an overview, and then subsequent posts will go into greater detail; I might even post some of my favorite recipes.

Food and Restaurants in Morocco

Most travelers to Morocco experience only restaurant food and don’t even realize how much they are missing by doing so.  They can’t really be blamed for this because it’s logical to assume that when one is hungry and doesn’t have a kitchen, one goes to a restaurant.  What most travelers don’t know is that average Moroccans don’t go out to eat in restaurants all that much and if they do, they don’t go out for Moroccan food.  They go out for what they don’t cook at home, like French or Italian or sushi. They know that the best Moroccan food is cooked in the home, usually by one’s mother.  From experience, I have to agree that anyone’s mother in Morocco cooks better than most restaurants.  In the West we often go out to eat for special occasions but in Morocco special occasions are marked by extra attention paid to creating wonderful meals at home, cooking certain dishes that are only for celebrations.  Going to a restaurant for a celebration is seen as a cheap and easy way out; whereas cooking something special at home shows that you really care.

That said, sometimes you really cannot eat at home.  A traveling salesman must eat his meals on the road, a post office employee can’t always run to her house to prepare a home-cooked meal.   For these kinds of meals on the go and away from home there are a lot of places that offer quite good food.  These places are usually off the radar for most tourists; they are found mostly where Moroccans work and live, not in tourist spots.  Their appearance is decidedly not fancy and they rarely appear in guide books, but they are often some of the best places to eat.

Butcher in Meknes, Morocco

In all my traveling around the country one stand-by for food is the ubiquitous pairing of butcher shop and small restaurant.  The idea is that you go to the butcher and pick out what you want. You can get ground meat mixed with herbs and spices for kefta kebab (like mini hamburgers on a stick), or just hunks of lamb (on a stick), or something the butcher recommends.  The butcher will wrap up your choice, you pay for it and then carry it a few steps to the restaurant which has a charcoal fire burning.  The restaurant will grill up your meat, serve it to you with fresh bread (possibly from the bakery next door on the other side), maybe some salad and a drink of your choice.  It’s a simple meal but the ingredients are incredibly fresh, cooked in front of you and served with bread that was made within feet of where you are sitting.  You can put the grilled meat in the bread and take it to go if you need to hit the road.  Almost every town or widening of the road will have a stand like this. When you travel by bus around Morocco the driver will stop at a gas station/truck stop that has one of these stands.  In larger cities, such stands can be found everywhere each one offering its specialty. It was in such a place that I tried lung sandwich, but only a taste.  I opted for a chicken sandwich which strangely enough was made with chicken still on the bones.  And the fries are served stuffed into your sandwich, an effort at gustatory efficiency which I applaud.

Tagine pot (click to go to original photo; used with permission)

It is also possible to find more elaborate stands that make tagine, a kind of stew that is prepared in a many different regional varieties across the country.  The stew is named for the cone-shaped earthenware pot in which it is prepared.  I have a bunch of recipes here which will give you an idea of what goes into the dish and how it is prepared.  The pot is put onto a charcoal brazier and cooked for a few hours; these stands usually have the tagines cooking out in front.  You can stop by and ask to see what they have cooking and pick what you like.  Again, you take a seat in the restaurant and the waiter will bring you bread (with which you eat the tagine), some salads and drinks.  This option is a bit more expensive than the grilled meat stand, but it is also more of a complete meal.

In addition to the above, there are always stands selling specialties like steamed snails, lamb and lentil soup (harira), fruit smoothies, dried nuts, bread, sweet, fruit etc.  Because Morocco is such an agriculturally rich and varied country, the food is all excellent and very fresh.  I’ve eaten an lowly, quotidien orange in Morocco that blew my socks off; I never knew an orange could be so delicious.  I was told that these were the reject oranges, the leftovers after they export the best quality oranges to Europe.  That ruined me for oranges evermore.


Fish market in Essaouira (click to go to original photo; used with permission)

That brings us to the discussion of staples of Moroccan cuisine.  Protein comes from chicken (#1 most consumed meat in Morocco), beef, lamb and fish.  European fishermen vie for the right to fish in Moroccan waters, specifically the Atlantic coast.  In seaside towns there is usually an area near the port where you can buy fish directly from the fishermen and have it grilled right there, similar to the grilled meat places described above.  With fish that fresh you don’t have to do much but grill it and squirt a little lemon on it.

Vegetable market in Morocco (click to see original photo; used with permission)

Moroccan food is said to be spicy.  I would agree with that in the sense that they use a lot of spices, but it is not usually hot spicy.  The most common spices/flavorings are cumin, saffron, turmeric, ginger, garlic  coriander, pepper and cayenne pepper.  There is a liberal use of olives and olive oil, lemon, mint, tomatoes, onions, peppers and parsley.  Common fruits are oranges, figs, dates, pomegranates, apples and apricots. Sweets are often made with almonds or walnuts, mixed with honey and rosewater.  Bread is a very important staple, served with practically every meal, and never wasted.  When bread goes stale it isn’t thrown away, but instead ground into a sand-like meal from which tea biscuits are made.  Couscous, a fine-grained pasta made from semolina, is another staple which is the basis of the national dish of Morocco of the same name. Needless to say the marketplaces in Morocco are dazzlingly colorful, highly fragrant and mouth-watering.

My favorite Moroccan cookbooks

Cooking at the Kasbah: Recipes from My Moroccan Kitchen by Kitty Morse

Couscous and Other Good Food from Morocco by Paula Wolfert

Mediterranean Street Food: Stories, Soups, Snacks, Sandwiches, Barbecues, Sweets, and More from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East by Anissa Helou (this is more than just Moroccan food; I love it for all the breads)

Thanks to the following for use of your great photos:

Sunshine Hanan

Robbie’s Photo Art